The development of swimming
      1912 - 1932                  
D Armbruster (1928) first filmed swimmers under water to study strokes. The Japanese also photographed and studied world-class athletes, using their research to produce a swim team that dominated the 1932 Olympic Games. This marked the beginning of research in stroke mechanics.
Dubois-Reymond, 1927
Cureton, 1930
Karpovitch, 1933